What is a String Trimmer?
This garden power tool has many names depending on where you live in the world, but one thing is sure, it certainly beats a hedge shears for trimming and edging! Like most power tools nowadays, they are available in gas, electric corded and rechargeable battery cordless versions.
The machine was invented in the early 1970s by George Ballas of Houston, Texas. He attached fishing line to the head of a lawn edger and was able to cut grass and weeds with his concoction. The tool works on the principle that a line spun at high speed becomes stretched and taut due to centripetal acceleration. The tension in the line makes it stiff and the inertia of the line gives it the energy to cut. So basically it is like a spinning whip.
This guide shows you how to wind the spool, and cut, without breaking the line!
Alternative Names for a String Trimmer
A string trimmer is also known as:
- Weed Eater (brand name)
- Weed Whacker
- Strimmer (In the UK and Ireland)
- Weed Trimmer
- Lawn Trimmer
- Weed Whip
- Whipper Snipper (Australia and Canada)
- Line Trimmer
Using a String Trimmer Safely
- Wear PPE (Personal Protective Equipment). The most important thing is to protect your eyes because even a small piece of snapped line, or debris such as a pebble travelling at 200 to 300 mph has the potential to cause a severe eye injury. A visor provides total face protection.
Don't wear shorts or sandals for obvious reasons. Heavy trousers will give some protection if you get hit by debris (even though you will still feel it!). Even broken off fragments of trimmer line will cut skin. Wear safety shoes which have steel caps and soles, as these will protect your feet if you walk on glass, metal, nails or other nasty stuff while working in an overgrown area. When cutting, angle the trimmer so that cut material is thrown away from you. Finally wear ear muffs to protect your ears as long term exposure to loud sounds can cause hearing damage.
- Check the Ground Before Trimming. Bits of glass, metal, pebbles etc can be caught by the line and become missiles
- Take Care of Cables. Take care not to hit the cable while using an electric trimmer. Electric trimmers are less powerful than gas versions and the line probably wouldn't cut the cord, however it could damage the insulation.
- Watch Out for Bystanders. People standing near you are more likely to be hit by debris than yourself. This is because debris may be travelling on an upwards trajectory and eventually reach eye level by the time it reaches the other person. This is especially the case if you are trimming or using a lawn mower on elevated ground. So pause your work until they have moved away. Debris thrown by a trimmer can also ricochet off hard surfaces. Young children should never be in the vicinity when you are using powered garden equipment.
- Avoid Windows and Cars. Pebbles thrown by a trimmer can easily chip paintwork and glass, and may even crack or break windows in your house or car. Check where debris is flying and direct it safely away from anything which could be damaged
How to Mix Fuel For a Gas Trimmer
Most trimmers have two stroke engines which don't have a sump filled with oil for lubrication (four stroke trimmers however are available). So lubricating oil must be mixed with gas before filling the tank. In general, the oil to gas ratio for a 2-stroke engine should be 1:50. This equates to 20 ml per liter or 2.6 US fluid ounces per US gallon. Some manufacturers recommend a 1:25 ratio for their engines so check your manual. 1:40 or 1:30 is probably a good compromise.
You can buy small bottles of two stroke oil which are sufficient to make up about a gallon or 5 liters (litres) of mix in a gerry can. Alternatively you can buy larger liter or quart bottles of oil. Oil can then be measured out into a graduated measuring cup or any other suitable container which you know the volume of. Add the oil to the gas can and then swirl it around to mix thoroughly. It's probably a good idea to wipe out any remaining oil from the measuring cup with a paper towel, otherwise all sorts of dust and dirt, spiders and insects will have stuck to the oil by the time you use it the next time.
Don't use 4 stroke motor oil in your engine. It contains additives which can contaminate the cylinder over time and also it can tar up the piston. Two stroke oil is designed to burn as cleanly as possible with the fuel.
Gas and Two Stroke Oil Needed for a 50:1 Ratio
|Amount of Fuel Mixture Required||Gasoline/Petrol||Two Stroke Oil|
1 US Quart
1 US Quart
0.6 US Fluid Ounces
1 US Gallon
1 US Gallon
2.6 US Fluid Ounces
How to Start a String Trimmer
A general procedure for starting two-stroke engines. There may be some variation as regards setting choke positions, so consult the instructions that came with your machine.
- Mix fuel as outlined above and fill the tank at least half full.
- Turn on the ignition switch.
- Turn on the choke.
- Prime the engine by pushing the primer button about 8 times.
- Pull the starter cord repeatedly until the engine kicks and attempts to start or runs.
- If it runs, allow it to continue running for about 10 seconds and then turn off the choke.
- If it cut out with the choke on, try turning off the choke and re-pulling the cord. If it doesn't start after a few attempts, turn the choke back on and re-starting.
If You Still Can't Start the Engine, Checkout My Fault Finding Guide to String Trimmers
What Type of Line Do I Use With My Trimmer?
Trimmers make use of a monofilament nylon line for cutting. You can buy this line in spools or rolls of varying lengths and cut it to size. Lower powered electric trimmers are normally used with fairly light gage line, about 1.5 mm / 0.06 inch (about 1/16 inch). This is fine for trimming light grass growth around curbs, edges of lawns and flower beds. Higher powered gas trimmers can also be used with light gage line, but for cutting thick vegetation in overgrown areas such as long grass, nettles, docks and other weeds, heavier gage line is pretty much essential to avoid breaking or tangling the line. This is available in sizes up to 4 mm / 0.16 inch (about 3/16 inch ). You can also buy line which has a square profile rather than round, and supposedly the "corners" cut better. I use a 2.4 mm line (about 0.1 inch) with my gas trimmer, which is a low cc model, and it gives good results with light and small amounts of heavy growth. Thicker gage line requires a correspondingly higher powered trimmer so that the head can spin sufficiently fast without the engine struggling and slowing down in thick vegetation. As always, its better to consult your manual to see what the manufacturer recommends.
Trimmer Line Replacement - Winding the Spool
- Make sure the end of the line is fully attached to the spool by feeding it through the thread hole or guide designed for this purpose. The line should then be wound tightly and evenly around the spool in the direction of the arrow (pull the line tight to tension it as you are doing so).
- If the line is wound slackly, excess line will feed out of the spool during an auto feed, or when you bump the cutting head to release line, and just end up getting snapped off by the knife on the guard of the trimmer. Neat winding helps to ensure that line feeds out ok and doesn't bind. You don't have to be overly fussy about this. Just make sure all the line isn't bunched up at one end of the spool or is very loosely wound around it.
Thread the end of the line into the hole and wind it in the direction of the arrow
Evenly wound spool. You can wind on lots more line than this
Replace the spool into the cutting head. Feed the end of the line through the hole in the cutting head of the trimmer and replace the cap
Replace the cap on the cutting head (if fitted)
How to Replace a String Trimmer Line
The Cutting Knife on a Trimmer
With some trimmers, the cutting head must be bumped down onto the ground to release new line. Other models auto-feed as line is used up. In any case, a cutting knife at the perimeter of the guard on the trimmer keeps the line trimmed and prevents it hitting or extending beyond the guard (which will slow or stall the machine and create a hazard). This knife should be sharp, otherwise it won't cut the line. If you notice this problem, you can sharpen it with a file, sharpening stone, or angle grinder.
Long Lasting Square Trimmer Line
This 0.095 inch diameter (2.4mm), 3 pound, 685 foot spool of professional trimming line manufactured by Oregon should last you years and years. It has a high strength inner core and an outer coating to prevent welding. In other words it is less likely to stick as it unwinds from the spool. The square edges also improve cutting efficiency compared to standard round profile type
Check your trimmer to see whether it is compatible with this diameter line.
Cut with the tip of the line and keep it up off the ground so debris and pebbles don't get thrown at you. Try to angle the trimmer so the guard gives you best protection
How to Cut With a Trimmer
- When using an electric trimmer, cut with the bare tip of the line because this is the section which moves at the highest speed
- Don't let the line slap into grass. Ease the line into vegetation, bit by bit from the edge. You shouldn't allow all the line to come in contact with grass as this will tend to slow it down causing it to lose momentum and it won't do a good job of cutting
- When cutting around thick vegetation, it's vital to slowly move the line into the material being cut, otherwise it'll become tangled or break. A gas trimmer has more power, is usually fitted with heavier gage line, and you can allow more of the line into the vegetation without it slowing down. You just need to listen to the sound of the machine and when the line slows down, back off out of the grass
- The line often breaks when trimming around pavements, kerbs, pots etc, This is because it tends to slap against the hard surface instead of soft growth and this can shear or abrade it rapidly. This is why it is important to just cut with the tip of the line. It still wears rapidly, but just a little bit at a time rather than in large pieces
- Thinner gage line will snap more readily. You can use a thicker line but it is less effective when cutting at low speeds. The advantage of a gas trimmer is that you can vary the speed depending on whether you are cutting fine grass or thick vegetation
- When cutting, angle the trimmer so that the cutting head isn't rubbing off the ground. Adjust the distance of the head from the ground so that the full extent of the line isn't rubbing off the ground surface either. Let the tip of the line do the work and ease it into the area being cut
- When cutting around shrubs and trees, take care you don't strip the bark which can kill the plant
- Creepers and climbing plants can sometimes get tangled around the cutting head of a trimmer, although the line usually cuts through these, however if you have young cabbage palms (cordylines) in your garden, keep well away from the leaves! These are long tough and stringy and always seem to get wrapped around the head, stalling the engine
Cut With the Tip of the Line and Angle the Cutting Head
Lighter Gage Line for Gas or Electric Trimmers
Home-owner grade trimmer line by Rino-Tuff from Amazon. This line is lighter gage 0.065 inch (1.65 mm) and more suitable for electric trimmers. You can use it with a gas trimmer, but it will snap and get used up quicker when cutting heavier vegetation.
Thinner line is more suitable for cutting light growth and trimming around flower beds and curbs.
Check your trimmer documentation to ensure this diameter line is suitable.
How to Avoid Getting Covered by Grass
The line generally turns clockwise (viewed from above), so when it's to right of the cutting head it's heading towards you and when on the left, it heading away from you. If you imagine a circle through which the line turns, try to keep this circle positioned so that you're cutting in the 10 o'clock to 12 o'clock positions and grass is being thrown away from you or perpendicular to you.
Edging a Flower Bed
I maintain a sort of "kerb(curb)" effect at the edges of my flower beds, and the soil is lower than the lawn and slopes upwards and backwards (see photo below). This makes it easy to trim the grass at the edge of the lawn when it gets ragged. In this case, the trimmer is first used in the normal horizontal mode to taper the grass level to the edge of the bed, which looks better. Next switch to vertical mode so that the line is perpendicular to the ground as shown in the video below.
Using Electric and Gas Trimmers
Choosing and Buying a String Trimmer
Trimmers are produced by all the well known tool manufacturers. This includes Black & Decker, Qualcast, Flymo, Stihl, Husqvarna and many more. Although buying a well known brand doesn't necessarily guarantee a reliable or durable product, it does mean that spare parts are more easily sourced.
Your choices are gas, electric or battery (cordless). In general gas powered models are more powerful, but high powered electric models are also available such as the Greenworks 21142.
Recommended Trimmer - Greenworks 21142
Greenworks 21142 model. This has a 10 amp motor (equivalent to over 1100 watt or 1 1/2 HP). The reason I like this machine is because the motor is mounted near the handle end of the shaft unlike lower powered corded electric trimmers that have the motor at the cutting head. This balances the machine better. Because it's electric there are no fumes and it's ideal if you you find it difficult to pull start an engine. See also the comment by Dennis below.
Questions & Answers
Question: Head of a Stihl string trimmer stops moving and makes a bad noise. What could be the problem?
Answer: It could be a couple of things. Possibly the clutch is worn or the clutch springs have broken. The clutch is located up near the engine. Also, the drive shaft may have broken or the section where the shaft joins with the head could be damaged.
Question: My brand new trimmer becomes very hot in a few minutes and then stops abruptly. When I restart it again functions but if I begin to cut again it stops and doesn't cut. It can only start but cannot cut. Please, what causes this? It is a brand new, and I've used it twice, but the same problem occurred.
Answer: Firstly, if it's brand new, bring it back or send it back if you bought it online, because it'll be on warranty for probably a year.
If you're trying to trim long grass, try not to push the trimmer too far into the grass as it can overload the machine and tangle up the head.
Is this a petrol/gas machine? If so you need to use two stroke oil at a ratio of 1 part oil to 50 parts gas to lubricate the machine and stop it overheating and seizing up.
If the trimmer is electric, is it suited to your voltage supply? A 110-volt trimmer used on a 240 volt supply will overheat and burn out or if you're lucky an overcurrent circuit breaker device on the tool will cut off power before this happens.
Question: How to pull the string out when it is cut?
Answer: If you mean the cord, checkout this guide whic shows you how to replace the cord:
Question: Why does the nylon line get longer when using a string trimmer?
Answer: If the trimmer auto feeds, it's possible that the mechanism is faulty and letting the line out too quickly. The cutter on the trimmer guard should cut the line in any case. Try winding the line a bit tighter and neater on the spool because if it's loose, it will feed out too much.
Question: Can you use a string trimmer for cutting overgrown grass that's 2 feet tall?
Answer: Yes, you can cut any height of grass. However, it's important not to overload the trimmer if it's low powered. Long grass may tend to tangle in the head so cut a bit a little at a time by moving the tip of the line slowly into the grass. Don't bury it in growth. Clear the waste out of the way as you work if you find it's tangling up in the cutting head.
Question: How much two stroke oil do I mix with petrol for my trimmer?
Answer: In general, mix 1 part oil with 50 parts petrol (gas). However, some manufacturers recommend that you mix 1 part oil with 25 parts petrol. Consult your manual for details.
Question: How do I prevent line fusion of a string trimmer?
Answer: Try and wind the line tight and evenly. I've never tried it, but you could try spraying the windings with silicone spray. It's good for freeing hooks/rings on curtain rails, so it might also work for trimmer line.
© 2013 Eugene Brennan
Eugene Brennan (author) from Ireland on July 25, 2019:
Turning a motor on and off causes a surge of current into the motor, plus over time arcing of the switch contacts in the trigger can cause arcing and degradation of the switch. The chances though are that the bearing on the trimmer head (at the end of the shaft) will wear out before this happens. The insulating varnish on the windings of the rotating armature inside the motor also breaks down over time, eventually resulting in the motor burning out. So it's hard to tell really what the best option, probably doesn't make much difference.
The Deardorff on July 24, 2019:
My step son uses the electric weed wacker, by starting and stopping the engine constantly. Is this good to do, or should he keep the line moving at a steady pace?
Eugene Brennan (author) from Ireland on June 21, 2019:
When you feed the line through the hole with one hand, hold it with your other hand. Put the cover back on the reel holder (if there is one) While still holding the end of the line, push the reel holder cover in as if you're doing a bump feed and pull more line out then release it. Alternatively just feed more line through the hole when you replace the reel so that it doesn't all go back through the hole when tension is released.
Tim Jones IA on June 21, 2019:
The string trimmer I use keeps having problems. I wrap new line (have tried numerous types) around the spool but when I feed it through the hole, all the tension in the line is released and the line snaps back through the hole. How do I keep sufficient tension on the spool on the line?
Matthew on May 29, 2019:
Why do you think the gasoline string lawn trimmers do not have the engine cylinder and engine cylinder head as one piece or have the head thread onto the cylinder?
Eugene Brennan (author) from Ireland on May 28, 2019:
There still might be more stringy vegetation caught between the back of the head that houses the spool of line and the shaft of the weed eater. Look in from the side without the guard and you should be able to see it. You could poke it out with a long thin screwdriver, opened out wire coat hanger or similar. If there isn't anything caught, the head may have been damaged.
Crystal Shaver on May 28, 2019:
When I was weed eating on Monday, I was cutting down some high weeds with my weed eater, when a bunch of them got wounded up on the weed eater I had to cut the weeds to remove them from the weed eater. Then when i started it back up it had a hard time spinning. So I turned it off so it could cool down.
What should I do when I start it back up again and it has a hard time turning?
Eugene Brennan (author) from Ireland on May 11, 2019:
Mine is a Procut model (Woodies own brand) with bump feed, so the head has to be bumped on the ground to let out line. Is yours the same or is it supposed to auto feed as the line shortens? The only thing I can suggest is to try and keep the winding neat with turns side by side as you wind, then put your finger on the end of the line to stop the turns unravelling as you replace the spool into the head. Then pull the line tight out of the hole. Occasionally adjacent turns can bind and line not feed out but it doesn't happen regularly. Make sure the spool is seated properly in the head before you screw on the cover.
GerOBrien on May 11, 2019:
Hi, Eugene, not sure if your still responding to comments but here goes.
I bought a 2 stroke petrol strimmer today and after a few minutes of strimming, the line stops auto feeding. When I open the head the line gets caught around itself. I've tried to steps of coiling the line up in the direction of the arrows and tightly but still it keeps happeningp? Any thoughts?
It's a procut 26cc model, line trimmer.
Sharon on March 03, 2019:
Everytime I weed eat the string breaks. I have to stop take the string out and put back in. I hate weed eaters.
Eugene Brennan (author) from Ireland on February 16, 2019:
Thanks Geraldine. Some vegetation can be very tough with stringy fibres and a trimmer won't cut it, although a brush cutter, maybe one with a cutting disk, will do. The leaves of cordylines are really awful and will tangle up a trimmer line and wrap themselves around the head.
Geraldine on February 16, 2019:
Thankyou Eugene. The string on my flymo trimmer keeps flying out. Maybe the Elephant grass is too strong for it Will also try and tie string tighter. I have a Ryobi trimmer but the silly string is stuck! Husbands shouldnt die before wives!! Geraldine South Africa
Eugene Brennan (author) from Ireland on September 26, 2018:
Try winding the spool tighter.
Check the end of the line is securely attached to the spool before you wind.
The mechanism that releases the line (if it atofeeds or line can be fed out by bumping the head) may be damaged.
Check the spool is seated properly within any outer enclosure that the line passes through.
Tom Wells on September 26, 2018:
Line comes out of the spool when running,
Eugene Brennan (author) from Ireland on September 12, 2018:
Great! Thanks for sharing the info! These comments do help.
Fake Name on September 12, 2018:
I figured out why the line was hitting the guard. My trimmer's guard lost two of the three screws holding it in place, and it made the guard hang just a little bit too low. Bought a couple screws from the local hardware store for a few cents, installed them, and I don't dread doing yard work anymore! Hope it helps somebody in the future! Thanks for the help!
Eugene Brennan (author) from Ireland on August 31, 2018:
Does the string auto feed? I presume you've tried to wind it tight and even as suggested, so excess line doesn't fly out and get cut off when it feeds. Have you wound it in the right direction around the spool? Usually there's an arrow indicating which way to wind. Also use a heavy enough gauge of string as recommended by Stihl. Light gauge line wears and snaps quicker. The only other think I can think of is that something's gone awry with the feed mechanism.
Jeanette on August 31, 2018:
Hi Eugene: Good article. Question: I have a heavier duty stihl. The lower string breaks quite quickly. It doesn't matter if I am going fast or slow, in heavy vegetation or light. I end up with a lot of the lower second string still on the spool, when the top is gone, and mostly, I'm cutting with one string. Two strings would be better. I haven't found anything obvious that would be cutting the string. Suggestions?
Eugene Brennan (author) from Ireland on August 24, 2018:
The line should be on the same plane as the cutter so that it'll always cut it.
Fake nam on August 24, 2018:
What if the line points upwards, and hits the guard? The line is already shorter than the cutter can reach.
Eugene Brennan (author) from Ireland on June 12, 2018:
There should be a cutter on the edge of the guard that trims it to size.
If you find that the line is always flying out and hitting the guard, it may be too loosely wound on the spool. When winding, try to keep it even plus wind tightly as shown in the video.
Antwan Alvarado on June 12, 2018:
The line keeps hitting with the plastic guard and makes an awful noise. is that good?
Eugene Brennan (author) from Ireland on July 04, 2017:
You could use a brushcutter. These are fitted with metal or plastic cutting flails (although flails are banned in the EU http://www.hse.gov.uk/safetybulletins/brush-cutter...
Some brushcutters are fitted with circular saw blades, brush knives, grass blades, etc.
These cutting heads are suitable for cutting brush growth, i.e. thick woody stems. I don't know how effective they would be on grass and it's unlikely they could be used up close to herbs.
Majid Buchh on July 03, 2017:
Hi there. I would like to know if there is any trimmer I can buy without having to go through strings. Do gas ones have these things?
Is there such thing a trimmer without strings. Like let's say stringless
Dennis on June 10, 2017:
I never had a gas trimmer outclass my greenworks 21142 at all. Quite the opposite. Even won a $100 bet against a gas one. When they figure how to make a battery powered one perform like a 10 amp corded trimmer with run time of gas, then gas trimmers will be a dead market.
Eugene Brennan (author) from Ireland on September 18, 2016:
Hi John, I never thought of doing that because I've never had trouble with binding. Nylon is used for trimmer line because of its two desirable characteristics, high resistance to abrasion and low friction coefficient (i.e. it's slippery). If the line binds, it could be because the turns on the spool are wound too closely together. When winding, I try to space the turns widely rather than packing them closely together. However try to pull the line tight as you wind the spool to prevent excessive line feeding out as the head spins.
I don't know whether oiling the line would be effective but you could try using a silicone spray which would be less messy than oil. However it's likely that centrifugal force would just throw lubricant off the coils as the head spins.
John on September 17, 2016:
Do you ever oil your trimmer line to prevent binding? Thanks.
Eugene Brennan (author) from Ireland on August 11, 2016:
Hi Len, as outlined in the article above, try to cut with the tip of the line, don't bury it in vegetation or let it slap off concrete. Don't let it wrap around shrubs and basically just ease it into vegetation when cutting. Thin line will wear and quicker when attempting to cut dense vegetation with an electric trimmer so just take it easy with it or try using a thicker line. I have used 2.4 mm (about 0.1") line with my Black and Decker and it lasts longer when cutting dense growth, however long term the heavier weight of the line probably isn't the best for the bearing of the machine (because it puts more load on it).
Len on August 11, 2016:
The line of my weed eater keeps breaking any ideas
Eugene Brennan (author) from Ireland on October 29, 2015:
Thanks Jodah, it can be frustrating when the line breaks, which is often due to over zealous use of the machine. Watch out for shrubs and trees also, the line can easily strip bark and stunt growth.
John Hansen from Queensland Australia on October 28, 2015:
This was a very useful article eugbug. It drive me around the twist having to continually replace line in my trimmer. I will take your advice and take more care to only use the cutting tip of the line and move into grass slowly a little at a time.
Neelakantan on May 29, 2015:
The article is well written and easy to understand. It is well illustrated with photographs. The author is very sincere and dedicated. Wish him/her good luck
Michael M. Rodriguez from Orlando on October 25, 2014:
Too great. Your article was so good and sufficient
Terry on August 08, 2014:
Fabulous instructions and photos. Best web pages I have seen showing so much detail, of tremendous help to me. Thank You.
Judy Specht from California on March 31, 2013:
I can't ever get the string to bump properly. Thanks for helping with the angles.
Eugene Brennan (author) from Ireland on March 31, 2013:
Hi tamron, thanks for the comments and dropping by!
tamron on March 31, 2013:
Well illustrated hub with easy to follow instructions for weed eating!
Eugene Brennan (author) from Ireland on March 31, 2013:
Hi John. Thanks for the comment. We don't have to worry about grass cutting or trimming yet here. There's no growth yet because we're getting blasted in northern Europe by cold east winds from Siberia for the last month.
John MacNab from the banks of the St. Lawrence on March 31, 2013:
A practical guide to trimming, eugbug. Thank you - you published it at the right time - when I'm looking for my trimmer in an overcrowded shed.